The 4 Most Common Encaustic Painting Woes & How to Fix Them

Encaustic is an amazing painting medium and I’m sad when I hear that artists have given it up because of a problem that could have easily been fixed with knowing only one useful tip. If you’re having painting bothers, read on for the rescue.

I’ve been teaching encaustic painting since 2005 and throughout my teaching I have noticed four major recurring issues, problems and mistakes that many (beginner to advanced) encaustic painters encounter. Application, temperature, translucency and fusing issues are the infamous four problems. Even more of a problem is that these issues are difficult to pinpoint as some beginning painters may think it’s just the medium itself and give up before they really get started. Intermediate and advanced painters may have learned to adapt, but still end up getting frustrated. Encaustic is an amazing painting medium and its so sad when I hear that artists have given it up because of a problem that could have easily been fixed with knowing only one useful tip.

So if you’re having some painting bothers (both encaustic medium and pigmented encaustic paint), don’t throw down your brushes in disgust just yet…read on for the rescue. I’d like to preface by saying, if you’re heavy handed, a texture fiend, a fuse monster or anything else on this list and it doesn’t bother you….by all means, do you! Just make sure you have the control you want when it’s applicable and you’re obtaining desired results.

  1. PROBLEM Application– This is the number one issue on my list because this is where it all begins–if your application goes wrong, it’s pretty much a melty mess from there. Encaustic application is affected by many factors: the amount of paint on the brush, the size of the brush, the type of the brush and the angle of the brush as well as the temperature of the paint, which I address below in #2. Improper paint application can cause issues with too much texture, blurring or obscuring collage elements, wasting paint/medium, not to mention endless frustration.
    FIX Try using a smaller brush. Seriously, I know those 4-inch brushes are luscious, but you don’t need one that large when you’re painting on anything smaller than a 36×36 inch panel and even then I would question it’s use. The brush size should reflect the panel size and/or the function of the stroke. For example, I never go above a 1.5 inch brush when applying medium over collage and I have several sizes below 1.5 in my medium skillet. When painting, you can get a bit larger, but stay proportionate to the size of your panel and/or the effect you’re trying to achieve.
    FIX Try a different type of brush/tool. Most encaustic painters prefer hake brushes to chip brushes as they hold a nice amount of paint and make a nice smooth stroke when needed. However, if you’re not getting the results you like with a brush, try an alternative application tool, such as a palette knife or squeegee. See this blog post for how to make an alternative brush from flashing.
    FIX Scrape off excess paint. If your brushes are sitting in cups or skillets of paint/medium and you’re not scraping them, you’re likely applying too much. Any brush, especially a hake is just sitting in there soaking up the wax. Try scraping the brush on the side of the cup once or twice. This works wonders, trust me.
    FIX Adjust the angle. Because of the way a hake brush is made, it holds most of the paint at the base. So if you’re looking for a lot of paint to flow smoothly, try holding the brush at a 45 degree angle to the substrate with a gentle pressure instead of just the tip of the brush touching the substrate.
  2. PROBLEM Too much Texture This problem is very much related to application, but it’s a solo number on this list because it’s possibly the most annoying and prevalent issue in encaustic painting. This is also one of those problems that can cause someone to either begrudgingly accept it or quit encaustic altogether.
    FIX Adjust the Temperature. So simple, yet it’s ignored or not sufficiently attended to. The proper working temperature for encaustic painting is 200 degrees Fahrenheit….nothing less and sometimes more! More people than I can count do not keep their paint hot enough for proper encaustic painting. I use a pancake griddle in my unheated studio and in the winter I usually have it at 225F. Most pancake griddles are not meant to be working for hours at a time, so the heating elements are not accurate. If your wax is cooling on your brushes and too much texture is on your substrate, your wax is simply not hot enough.
    FIX Load Your Brush. While having too much paint on your brush may cause problems, having too little can be problematic as well. If you’re mixing your paint directly on the griddle and not in cups, chances are you’re not loading your brush. Make sure you have a nice puddle of paint, your brush is laid flat as you soak it up (not just the tip) and you load both sides of the brush.
    FIX Keep your brushes warm. During painting, your brushes should always be kept in the cups or on your griddle to keep them warm. When they begin to cool as you paint, lay them flat for few seconds on the griddle to warm up.
  3. PROBLEM Too much Opacity, No Translucency. One of the most amazing things about encaustic is its wonderful translucency and yet, I see very few artists taking advantage of this gift. Most are adding way too much pigment and not enough medium and/or not understanding that translucency is even an option to take their work to the next level. The ability to look through the layers to embedded information creates interest and encourages the viewer to remain engaged with your work. The key to translucency lies in the paint mixing.
    FIX Add color to Medium. In my teaching, I see way too many artists adding medium to their melted paint in order to create a translucent glaze and then end up using ten pounds of medium for a single color. Instead, add color to the medium to create a glaze. Melt a small amount of medium in your color cup or on the palette and then add a very small amount of color to create a tint. Keep adding color in very small increments until the desired color/translucency is achieved. Color test as you add. You will be amazed at how this changes your color mixing knowledge as well as the look of your paintings.
  4. PROBLEM Over fusing I can’t tell you how many (mostly beginners) tell me that they love what they painted, but when they fuse it, it gets all smushed together and ruined. While fusing is definitely necessary, there are various levels and various fusing tools that can be implemented according to the technique you’re employing. For the purposes of this article, I am focusing only on painting and not collage or other mixed media.
    FIX Try another tool. I use three tools for fusing; an iron, a heat gun and a torch. Many beginners start encaustic painting with the torch and only use it for the duration of their careers. This is fine if it’s working for you, but in many situations, it isn’t working. I always say, begin with a heat gun and gradually add in the torch. Also, most expensive heat guns are way too hot and heavy for what you need. I love my embossing tool and have used it since the beginning. It’s exactly what I need and if I need anything stronger, I use my torch.
    FIX Don’t Fuse Every Layer. What??? Yes, that’s what I said. If you’re fusing every single application of paint, you likely have a very hot surface you’re working on and this is creating a hot waxy mess instead of a painting. Okay, if you’re a heavy handed painter, you should probably fuse every 1-2 layers. But if you’re applying thin to medium strokes and those strokes are only in one part of the painting, I recommend only fusing every 2-4 layers. Your substrate is already warm enough from your last fusing and therefore doesn’t need another right after you just applied new hot paint. Many people are perplexed when I tell them this liberating fact after they have been over-fusing for so many years. I have paintings out in the world that are now over 20 years old and they are still in excellent shape. Try it! Trust me, you’ll thank me later.
    FIX Employ the The Glazed Donut Standard. Many encaustic painters seem to be mistaken in thinking that in order to properly fuse, the wax needs to be brought back to a molten state or close to it and this is just not the case. It’s for this reason that many painters sadly obliterate their paintings. But for the foundation layers, it’s only in very few cases that you would ever need to fuse back to a molten state. For the most part, most fusing should render the surface no more shinier than a glazed donut and this is where the standard on your fusing scale begins. Sometimes you will need to fuse more than a glazed donut, sometimes less, but this is the fusing surface you are attempting to achieve.

NEW! Virtual Encaustic Demonstration: Basically, the Very Basics

Start the New Year off right by doing what you’ve always wanted to do: learn encaustic painting!

Watch the recording from this demonstration HERE.

Basically, the Very Basics Encaustic
A Live Virtual Zoom Workshop
Registrants receive a Zoom link to join the workshop & have access to the recorded session for a limited time following the workshop.

Level: Beginner

When
January 6, 2022
1:00pm-3:30pm EST
*We will take a short break during the session

Price
FREE

To Register
Just send an email with a request to register

Who
For Lorraine’s bio, portfolio, exhibitions, teaching and anything else you might want to know, please visit her web site.

Workshop Description

Start the New Year off right by doing what you’ve always wanted to do: learn encaustic painting! This is an extremely comprehensive LIVE Virtual Demonstration jammed packed with everything you need to know to start painting with this inspiring medium. It’s all here, plus some additional advanced techniques for those who may want a bit more. Also…a LIVE Q&A will immediately follow the demonstration.

***Registration for my Beyond the Basics: Layers, Translucency & Collage Live Virtual Encaustic Workshop automatically enrolls you in this workshop for FREE!

Tips & Techniques covered:

  • A Brief History of Encaustic
  • Safety
  • Basic Tools
  • Work Surfaces
  • Fusing
  • Color Mixing Techniques
  • Paint Application/Layering Techniques
  • Smooth Surface Manipulation
  • Texture Techniques
  • Basic Scraping
  • Adding Line
  • Stencilling/Masks
  • Basic Collage
  • Incising/Mark-making Techniques
  • Clean-up
  • Storage
  • Live Q&A

NEW! Virtual Encaustic Workshop: Beyond the Basics

If you’re ready to take your encaustic painting knowledge to the next level, then this is the workshop for you. Designed for those with some encaustic painting experience, this workshop takes a deeper dive into progressive painting and mixed media encaustic techniques to include color mixing, transparency and opacity, blending and gradations and how to organize layers of color and visual information.

If you could say it with words, there would be no reason to paint. –Edward Hopper

Beyond the Basics Encaustic Painting
A Live Virtual Zoom Workshop
Registrants will receive a Zoom link to join the workshop & will have access to the recorded sessions for a limited time following the workshop.

Limited to 10 participants!
Level: Intermediate to Advanced

When
3 Days-April  5, 7, 12, 2022
1:00pm-3:30pm EST each day
*We will take a short break during the session

Price
$450 Venmo or Check
$466 Paypal

3 Ways to Register
1. *PREFERRED* Venmo: Send to @Lorraine-Glessner
2. Paypal: Send to lorraineglessnerstudio@gmail.com
3. Check (please contact Lorraine for mailing address)

Who
For Lorraine’s bio, portfolio, exhibitions, teaching and anything else you might want to know, please visit her web site.

Workshop Description

If you’re ready to take your encaustic painting knowledge to the next level, then this is the workshop for you. Designed for those with some encaustic painting experience, this workshop takes a deeper dive into progressive painting and mixed media encaustic techniques to include color mixing, transparency and opacity, blending and gradations and how to organize layers of color and visual information.
Organized into three comprehensive segments with time in between for experimenting with the techniques at your leisure, this workshop is designed to offer you the group workshop experience without leaving home. Segment one is focused on encaustic color mixing, translucency, opacity, alternative application techniques and tools. Segment two is an even deeper dive into encaustic painting techniques, layering, blending, gradations and comprehensive scraping and layer manipulation techniques. The third segment is a deep dive into encaustic collage, including seamless placement, application and fusing, image transfer, mixed media and composition.
It is helpful, but not necessary to have had any previous experience with the encaustic medium to take this workshop.

***Registration for this workshop automatically enrolls you in Basically the Very Basics Live Virtual Encaustic Demonstration for FREE!

Who should take this workshop?

  • You’ve worked in encaustic for a while and have never used its transparency and layering possibilities to full advantage.
  • You’ve worked in encaustic for a while and have never scraped your layers(!) to reveal the awesomeness underneath.
  • You want to express yourself in a more meaningful way with your work.
  • You want to create consistency, a personal voice, your own mark, in your paintings and body of work as a whole.
  • Your creative process is stagnating and you need to learn a new process, idea or technique.
  • You love image and collage, but when you embed these elements into encaustic, the collage is blurred, burned or looks clunky.
  • You love painting with the intensely pigmented color of encaustic and want to learn how to effectively apply it-how to mix color, how and when to use glazes, what brushes and tools to use.
  • You are frustrated with your current body of work, your process(es) and want to create consistency, and a cohesive portfolio.
  • You are a semi-beginner to advanced painter (encaustic or other) who often finds their paintings rife with color, paint, collaged, etc. information, but can’t put a finger on what is lacking or how to finish it.
  • You have great ideas but your compositions are scattered, nothing connects or works together to tell your story.


What happens in this workshop? What will I learn?

  • Learn tips for getting out of your own way so your painting process flows.
  • Learn how to apply encaustic paint in layers and in various levels of transparency, as well as how and when to scrape back to reveal exciting forms and patterns within the layers.
  • Learn how to use the transparency of the wax to allow pattern and information to combine and ‘talk’ within the painting.
  • How to effectively use the palette for mixing and painting in encaustic.
  • Learn alternatives to the tools, painting and scraping methods from the ‘usual’ encaustic techniques.


    Included in all of my encaustic workshops
  • Color, composition, application, content-the basics, the intermediate, the advanced.
  • Using color relationships, proportion, scale as an effective foundation for other painterly information.
  • Learn how to use encaustic’s strengths (layering, transparency, luminosity) to tell your story.
  • Group sharing and discussion-always an amazingly helpful time for participants to share their victories and struggles.
  • A slide talk with examples of contemporary artists whose work applies the concepts discussed in the workshop is offered for inspiration. Some examples of the slides included in the talks for this workshop is just below.
  • Individual and group instruction/critique throughout the workshop.


    SUGGESTED MATERIALS PARTICIPANTS HAVE IN THEIR STUDIO
    • Read this blog post for tools ideas-please note, you don’t have to have these materials but you might see something you’d like to try.
    • 2-4 wooden painting panels (your preference of 8×8 or 10×10, but no larger or smaller, please) (nothing coated in acrylic or acrylic gesso!!)
    • 3-5 natural hair brushes  for encaustic painting (1 smallish-no bigger than 1.5” brush will be designated your medium brush, so it must be free of color.
    • 1lb encaustic medium from any company
    • Heat gun and/or Iwatani torch
    • Sketchbook or Drawing paper
    • Package of razor blades or clay scraper
    • Any small sharp-ended tool for incising/writing/drawing into the wax (sewing or knitting needles are great)
    • Basic encaustic colors

      OPTIONAL MATERIALS 
    • Double sided scraper tool-available for purchase here
    • Mark-making tools…Woody, litho crayon, graphite paper, charcoal, oil pastel, etc.
    • Decorative stencils, mesh, doilies, etc-anything flat with open areas that can be used as a stencil
    • Various materials for collage (papers, magazine images, photos, etc.)

What kind of work will I make?

Please enjoy these works in progress that were created by workshop participants during workshops similar to this one.

Workshops, Workshops, Workshops… My 2022 Encaustic Workshop & Retreat Schedule

My 2022 Virtual & In-Person Encaustic Workshop & Retreat Schedule

2022 VIRTUAL ENCAUSTIC WORKSHOPS

BASICALLY THE VERY BASICS ENCAUSTIC
Live Zoom Demonstration
January 6, 2022, 1:00-3:30PM EST
WORKSHOP WEBSITE & REGISTRATION


BEYOND THE BASICS ENCAUSTIC: LAYERS, TRANSLUCENCY & COLLAGE
Live Zoom Workshop
April 5, 7, 12, 2022 1:00-3:30PM EST
WORKSHOP WEBSITE & REGISTRATION


PAINTING WITH FIRE ONLINE ENCAUSTIC WORKSHOPS WITH ESSENCE OF MULRANNY
26 Instructors/52 Lessons for One Low Price of $249
ITS NOT TOO LATE TO SIGN UP AND YOU’LL HAVE FOREVER ACCESS TO THE VIDEOS!
CLICK HERE TO REGISTER
2022 IN-PERSON WORKSHOP & RETREAT SCHEDULE


MIXED MEDIA ENCAUSTIC: FIBER & STRUCTURE
May 27-29
Schweinfurth Art Center, Auburn, NY
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


ALTERNATIVE METHODS & MATERIALS ENCAUSTIC: EXPLORING LINE
15th International Encaustic Conference
June 6-7
Truro Center for Arts at Castle Hill, Truro, MA
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


EXPLORING LANDSCAPE IN ENCAUSTIC & THE MARK: A VERMONT ARTIST RETREAT W/DIETLIND VANDER SCHAAF
So thankful to RF PAINTS for donating their exceptional products to this workshop!!
June 20-24
Lareau Inn & Farm, Waitsfield, Vermont
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


EXPLORING LANDSCAPE THROUGH PHOTOGRAPHY, THE FIGURE & ENCAUSTIC: A VERMONT ARTIST RETREAT W/LEAH MACDONALD
So thankful to RF PAINTS for donating their exceptional products to this workshop!!
Equally thankful to HAHNEMUHLE PAPERS for partially sponsoring this retreat!!!
July 11-15
Lareau Inn & Farm, Waitsfield, Vermont
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


FINDING YOUR CREATIVE TRUTH: A WORKSHOP COLLABORATION WITH TERRI YACOVELLI
July 25-28
Railroad house Inn, Marietta, Pennsylvania
WORKSHOP WEBSITE COMING SOON!


ABSTRACTING THE LANDSCAPE EN PLEIN AIR WITH ENCAUSTIC: A VERMONT ARTIST RETREAT W/KELLY MILUKAS
So thankful to RF PAINTS for donating their exceptional products to this workshop!!
August 15-19
Lareau Inn & Farm, Waitsfield, Vermont
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


MIXED MEDIA ENCAUSTIC: LAYERS & TRANSLUCENCY
October 21-23
The Encaustic Center, Richardson, Texas
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


ABSTRACT MIXED MEDIA ENCAUSTIC
November 11-13
Fountainhead Art Space, Atlanta, Georgia
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION

Exploring Landscape Through Photography, The Figure & Encaustic: An Artist Retreat

Explore the photographic possibilities of a live model within the rugged natural beauty of Vermont. Along with daily journaling, meditation, readings and expressive mark-making exercises, hikes and photo shoots will provide the inspiration for which to develop ideas and provide areas of focus for series based work while also developing your personal artistic voice.

I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I,
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.

-Robert Frost
Image: Leah MacDonald

So grateful to Hahnemuhle Papers for partially sponsoring this workshop!

So grateful to R&F Paints for partially sponsoring this workshop!!!

What
Exploring Landscape Through Photography, The Figure & Encaustic: An Artist Retreat

When July 11-15, 2022
(Scroll down for detailed daily itinerary)
Monday 7-9pm Orientation
Tuesday-Friday, 9am-4:00pm Workshop Hours
Tuesday-Thursday, 6:00-9pm optional night studio hours

Where  Lareau Farm Inn, Waitsfield, Vermont

Limited to 12 participants!
Level: Intermediate to Advanced
$1800 includes accommodations** (See the list of available rooms below), breakfast and lunch and most workshop materials (see supply list below)

Not Interested in Lareau Inn Accommodations, breakfast or lunch?
$1000 includes workshop fee and most materials (see supply list below)

Registration Instructions if staying at Lareau Inn:
1. Visit the Lareau Inn web site and choose your room. See the list below of available rooms. DO NOT book the room from the Lareau Inn web site!!!
2. Contact Lorraine via email lorraineglessnerstudio@gmail.com with the name of the room you’d like to book and for payment details.

Available Rooms at the Inn as of April, 2022
Respect
Forgiveness
Patience

Additional Accommodations are available at Waitsfield Inn and Featherbed Inn which are within one mile of Lareau Inn.
**Please Note Although the workshop continues through Friday, you must check out of Lareau Inn on Friday morning. If you would like to stay in the area Friday evening or beyond, there are many places in the town of Waitsfield and in nearby Stowe.

Payment Payment of 50% of the workshop fee + materials + accommodations ($900 if paying via check or Venmo, $932 if paying via Paypal) is due at the time of registration with the remaining 50% ($900) due approximately 6 weeks before the workshop date. Please contact Lorraine for payment details.

For Registration, Please Contact: Lorraine Glessner, lorraineglessnerstudio@gmail.com

Who A collaborative teaching venture with Leah MacDonald &
Lorraine Glessner (Scroll down for more about Lorraine and Leah)

Workshop Description
The mark of nature combined with encaustic painting creates timeless works which reference memory, change and time. Utilizing the natural luminosity, textural and layering possibilities of encaustic, participants will experiment with photographic imagery, collage and marks to depict the spirit and essence of the land. Easy to moderate hike(s) exploring the rugged natural beauty of Vermont are led by Lorraine and Leah, during which students will explore the photographic possibilities of a live model within a landscape environment. Along with daily journaling, meditation, readings and expressive mark-making exercises, these immersive hikes and photo shoots will provide the inspiration for which to develop ideas and provide areas of focus for series based work while also developing your personal artistic voice. Considerations of our body’s connection and it’s direct relationship to landscape will also be discussed. Optional individual critiques with both instructors will be offered to all participants.

Detailed Workshop Itinerary

Monday 7-9pm Orientation
Meet & Greet Wine and Smores by the Lareau Farm Fire Pit

Tuesday 9-4:00 Workshop, 6:00-9:00pm Optional Night Studio
The first day of the workshop will be a two-part photo shoot — students will photograph a model in the studio (our “main character”) and then we will go out on an easy hike to photograph on location in the landscape environment. Leah will teach you techniques and tips for working with a model, arranging props, and creating interesting compositions. Students will review their images and have a personalized editing session with Leah and Lorraine to discuss ideas for a visual narrative and select images that will work best in a composition.

Wednesday 9-4:00 Workshop, 6:00-9:00pm Optional Night Studio
Leah will discuss and give students tips on the best types of ink jet papers for printing photographs on your home printer. 
Lorraine and Leah will introduce photo transfer, collage, texture, surface manipulation and mark-making exercises, encouraging students to think creatively, symbolically and intuitively throughout the creative process.

Thursday 9-4:00 Workshop, 6:00-9:00pm Optional Night Studio
Lorraine and Leah will continue with photo transfer, collage, texture, surface manipulation and mark-making demos and exercises, encouraging students to develop a personal artistic voice. Leah and Lorraine will be conducting personalized individual mentoring sessions.

Friday 9:00am-1:00pm Workshop
Morning work time to complete projects and individual mentoring with Lorraine and Leah, project show and tell with the group, clean up and good-byes.

What Else?

  • Color relationships, composition, application, content, proportion, scale as an effective foundation for other painterly information.
  • Learn how to use encaustic’s strengths (layering, transparency, luminosity) to tell your story.
  • Mark-making exercises geared toward making simple or complex marks to generate a personal language.
  • The option of an Individual Consultation/Critique discussion with each instructor. Bring a piece of work, a question, a concern, a problem and discuss it with Leah and Lorraine.
  • Some guided meditation time and planned hikes will relax and open your mind and spirit to the land, helping to support and nurture your unique creative voice.
  • A slide talk with examples of contemporary artists whose work applies the ideas and concepts discussed in the workshop is offered for inspiration.
  • Lots of open studio time to explore and interpret the inspiration gained from the meditations and hikes.

SCROLL DOWN TO THE END OF THIS POST TO SEE Images of student work and fun scenes from this encaustic retreat at Lareau Inn in 2021. 
For more images of past Artist Retreats co-taught by Lorraine visit here, here and here. Additional blog posts related to artist retreats co-taught by Lorraine are here, here and here..

For Registration, Please Contact: Lorraine Glessner, lorraineglessnerstudio@gmail.com

About Lareau Farm Inn & Barn
Nestled on 25 acres of natural beauty, with the Mad River just steps away as well as trails for walking, hiking, mountain biking, Lareau Farm Inn and Barn is the perfect place to spark and inspire your artist vision. Our workshop studio is in the Historic Dairy Barn on the Lareau property, featuring rough-hewn beams, centuries-old hardwood floors and tons of space in which to create. The rooms at Lareau Inn feature antique furnishings, comfortable beds, and charming baths in a Vermont farmhouse setting with delicious farm to table dining. There is plenty of room to relax and enjoy the view in the common areas including a charming dining room, back porch and backyard fire pit. Visit Lareau Farm Inn Web Site for more images and information.

About Leah and Lorraine

About Leah MacDonald
https://www.lostlightluv.com/
Instagram @Leahwax1
My work is a dialogue between my imagination, my curiosity, my imperfections and my desires. I express the tales of womanhood, sharing stories through form, color and texture.
I am a portrait artist. I primarily photograph women and embellish the photographs with layers of beeswax, colored wax, painting and drawing. Adding wax for texture and color for mood changes the black and white photographs. Wax embellishes and veils my subjects and I draw to decorate and control the image. The ability to layer mediums and constantly change appearance and texture allows me to stray from reality and reach the playground of imagination. I am interested in images from nature and designs that have floral and intricate forms.
I have enjoyed a varied career path within the arts. I shoot digital commercial photography and I owned a small company that designed handmade art books and wedding albums. I taught photography for 7 years at the Art Institute of Philadelphia. I am currently the Education Curriculum Director at the Manayunk-Roxborough Art Center. In 2017 I was selected as the recipient of the NewCourtland Fellowship by The Center for Emerging Visual Artists. Now, over twenty years into my career as an artist and art educator, I have taught and exhibited all over the world — from being invited to do a live encaustic painting demonstration on the Martha Stewart show to working in the theater as the scenic director of In My Body: The Musical.
My passion is sharing my art and creativity with others. I have taught workshops as large as thirty-five students and as small as one-on-one private sessions — from private workshop retreats in France to teaching groups of elementary students in my backyard studio. I have grown to appreciate teaching all age groups for their unique needs and perspectives.

About Lorraine Glessner

lorraineglessner.net
Instagram @lorraineglessner1
Lorraine Glessner’s love of surface, pattern, markmaking, image and landscape has led her to combine disparate materials and processes such as silk, wood, wax, pyrography, rust, paper and more in her work. Lorraine is a former Assistant Professor at Tyler School of Art, Temple University, a workshop instructor and an award-winning artist. She holds an MFA from Tyler School of Art, Temple University, a BS from Philadelphia University, and an AAS in Computer Graphics from Moore College of Art & Design. She has a diverse art background with skills that include painting, sculpture, graphic design, interior design, textile design, photography, digital imaging and much more. Among her most recent professional achievements is a Second Place award in Sculpture from Art of the State at the State Museum in Harrisburg, PA, a recently completed artist residency at Jentel Foundation and an acquisition by Kelsey-Seybold Cancer Center in Houston, Texas. Lorraine’s work is included in the recently released Encaustic Art in the 21st Century by Ashley Rooney and Nuance, a curated book by artist, Michelle Stuart. Lorraine frequently lectures and participates on academic panels at various Conferences including The International Encaustic Conference, SECAC and The College Art Association Annual Conference. Her work is exhibited locally and nationally in galleries, museums, craft centers, schools, libraries, universities, and more. Like her work, Lorraine brings to her teaching a strong interdisciplinary approach, mixed with a balance of concept, process, history, experimentation, problem solving and discovery.

Workshop Supplies & Materials

Materials Included: The following list of materials is provided for the student

  • All encaustic paints, encaustic medium, tools and equipment
  • a variety of pigment sticks
  • Sumi ink & other misc. drawing media
  • Misc. drawing papers
  • Paper towels/rags
  • Extra encaustic brushes
  • Stencils and other textures
  • Misc. collage materials
  • Hahnemuhle photo papers
  • Printing of images

What to bring: the following is a list of materials for the student to bring to the workshop

  • Sketchbook/notebook, pencil or pen for note taking
  • 1-2 drawing media of your choice (pencil, pastel, conte charcoal, oil pastel, Crayon, graphite, felt pen, etc.)
  • Closed toe shoes for safety in the studio
  • 6-8 wooden painting panels (your preference of 8×8 or 10×10, but no larger or smaller, please) Other suggested substrates are: masonite (coated with encaustic gesso), Ampersand Encausticbord, MultiMedia Art Board. If you decide to bring something other than what is suggested here, it must be rigid and not coated in acrylic or acrylic gesso!!
  • 2-4 actual OR images of your work, digital prints or phone/iPad sharing is fine
  • 5-7 hake or hog’s bristle natural hair brushes in 1-2 inch sizes for encaustic painting (1 brush will be designated your medium brush, so it must be free of color if you are bringing used brushes)
  • materials for collage (fabric, papers, magazine images, photos, etc.)
  • Digital Camera or smart phone or point and shoot camera or DSLR
  • Laptop with photoshop or another photo editing program (There will be a laptop in the studio if you don’t have your own laptop.)
  • Scissors
  • Pva glue
  • Optional Materials Smock, any encaustic paint color or pigment stick color you favor, Iwatani torch with extra butane, any tool or material for any technique that you normally employ while working with encaustic, textured objects and/or sharp ended tool for pressing into/incising/writing/drawing into wax, 1-2 inspiring books to share with the class.

Hiking Equipment Recommendations

  • Sturdy hiking shoes/boots
  • Butt pack or small backpack
  • Comfortable clothing
  • Light rainwear
  • Hat
  • Water bottle
  • Bag for collecting found materials
  • For art supply/portable art supply/hiking or travel ideas, visit Lorraine’s Amazon Store

Cancellation
Please note a $50 cancelation processing fee will be deducted from any refund.
In the event that you need to cancel your workshop, please notify Lorraine via email.
Cancelations made 30 days or more from the workshop start date will be refunded their deposit (minus $100 processing fee).
Cancelations made 30 days or less from the workshop start date will be refunded their deposit (minus $100 processing fee) only if the space can be filled. If the space cannot be filled, no refund will be issued.

For Registration, Please Contact: Lorraine Glessner, lorraineglessnerstudio@gmail.com

Workshop Image Gallery
Images of student work and fun scenes from this encaustic retreat at Lareau Inn in 2021. Image Credit: Leah MacDonald & Lorraine Glessner

MORE IMAGES Images of student work and fun scenes from artist workshop retreats hosted and taught by Lorraine and workshops taught by Leah. For more images of past Artist Retreats co-taught by Lorraine visit here, here and here and Lorraine’s Workshop Web Site. Additional blog posts related to artist retreats co-taught by Lorraine are here, here and here..

Workshop Highlight: Exploring Landscape Through Encaustic, Mark-Making and the Handmade Book

Join me in July for a unique encaustic workshop opportunity. Located on the shores of Lake Superior just outside beautiful Bayfield, Wisconsin, Wild Rice Retreat creates a space for grounding the mind, body, and spirit through integrative artistic and holistic life experiences. 

When: July 11-15, 2021

Check In: Sunday, July 11th, 2021 | Check Out: Thursday, July 15th, 2021

Tuition + Meals: From $1004 per person
With RicePod Lodging Package: From $2,083 per person
With Nest Lodging Package: From $2,372 per person
With TreeHaus Lodging Package: From $1,671 per person

Visit Wild Rice Retreats for Information, Supply List, Images and Registration

Use discount code GLESSNER2021…HURRY…It expires 4/30

Workshop Description
Utilizing the natural luminosity, textural and layering possibilities of encaustic, participants will experiment with innovative materials, drawing and marks to depict the spirit and essence of the land. Daily journaling, meditation, readings and expressive mark-making exercises along with leisurely walks exploring the outdoors provide the inspiration for which to develop ideas for series-based work while also developing your personal artistic voice. Participants will experiment with a wide variety of innovative processes and materials such as encaustic monoprinting, suminagashi, powdered graphite/charcoal, graphite bars, horsehair, pyrography and stitch. The conceptual use of translucency and layers is further explored through simple, yet versatile, book bindings to create unique personal journals through the alternative book form. Through listening, mapping, touching, collecting and communing with nature through all of the senses, our body’s connection and its direct relationship to landscape is explored and experienced. Optional individual critiques with Lorraine will be offered to all participants.

**Please note that participants should be prepared to spend time outside as well as in the studio. In the event that participants are unable to take part in the outdoor activities, participants are welcome to opt out and alternative indoor creative exercises will be provided.

What Else

  • Color relationships, composition, application, content, proportion, scale as an effective foundation for other painterly information.
  • Learn how to use encaustic’s strengths (layering, transparency, luminosity) to tell your story.
  • Encaustic monoprints/works on paper and an option for exploration in combine with cold wax.
  • Mark-making exercises geared toward making simple or complex marks to generate a personal language.
  • The option of an Individual Consultation/Critique discussion with Lorraine. Bring a piece of work, a question, a concern, a problem and discuss it with Lorraine.
  • What’s your work about? Deepening the conversation. Guided writing exercises to help you focus on the meaning of your work and generate content for your artist statement.
  • Some guided meditation time and planned hikes will relax and open your mind and spirit to the land, helping to support and nurture your unique creative voice.
  • A slide talk with examples of contemporary artists whose work applies the ideas and concepts discussed in the workshop is offered for inspiration.
  • Lots of open studio time to explore and interpret the inspiration gained from the meditations and hikes.
  • Basic book structures such as the accordion and pamphlet will be explored as sculptural additions to our journals and sketchbooks.
  • The sketchbook as an art form, in and of itself, will be explored in depth as part of a discussion on combining found, altered, and sewn books into our curated sketchbooks.
  • The art of the book as an investigation of narrative, text and image, tactility and materiality and the book form as an intimate object will be discussed.

Visit Wild Rice Retreats for Information, Supply List, Images and Registration

Use discount code GLESSNER2021…HURRY…It expires 4/30

About Wild Rice Retreats
Located on the shores of Lake Superior just outside beautiful Bayfield, Wisconsin, Wild Rice Retreat creates a space for grounding the mind, body, and spirit through integrative artistic and holistic life experiences.  Our focus is on artistic excellence in teaching and thoughtful, supportive programming for individual growth.  Rooted in the idea of exploring and supporting expression in nature, Wild Rice Retreat offers a home for healing guided, personal and group retreats, meeting space, and events following the pillars of nourishment, expression, and movement.  Wild Rice Retreat is a vibrant, creative, and beautiful destination retreat center in the Upper Midwest.

Carefully crafted and locally sourced meals prepared by renowned Chef Lars Dukowitz (formerly of the Wild Rice Restaurant), daily programming, beautiful trails, and comfortable, exquisitely detailed lodging are all part of the retreat package.  Whether guests choose from a guided retreat, taught by nationally acclaimed instructors, a personal retreat, perfect for quiet rest and relaxation, or a group or corporate retreat where guests come together around a common goal, all the elements of retreat await. See more gorgeous images and read about Wild Rice Retreat’s Brand New Housing.

Visit Wild Rice Retreats for Information, Supply List, Images and Registration

Use discount code GLESSNER2021…HURRY…It expires 4/30

What Kind of Work Will I Make?

The following is a collection of student and instructor’s work from workshops similar in content to this one. Enjoy this eye candy, I hope to see you this summer at Wild Rice Retreats!

Workshops! Workshops! Workshops! My 2020-2021 Encaustic Workshop Schedule

Are you in need of something new to occupy your mind in this time of crazy? Take an encaustic workshop to soothe your soul, help you gain perspective, or get out those frustrations by throwing some paint around the room!

Are you in need of something new to occupy your mind in this time of crazy? Take an encaustic workshop to soothe your soul, help you gain perspective, or get out those frustrations by throwing some paint around the room!
Whatever the reason…buy one for someone you love, buy one for yourself or both.
Before choosing a Retreat or Workshop, please be sure to read my Workshop & Retreat Guide to find out if a Workshop or a Retreat experience (or both!) is the best choice for you. Please note that an additional category has been added to my workshop listing..Virtual Workshops! More virtual workshops will soon be added for January-March, so keep up to date by:

1. Checking my web site Events Page
2. Following me on Instagram or Facebook
3. Becoming a member of my New Facebook Group-Full Spectrum: Lorraine Glessner Painting Workshops Forum
4. Signing up for my Newsletter so you can be the first to know of new listings.
5. Asking! Just email me and I’ll send you a link to my latest schedule.

Please don’t hesitate to contact me with questions about any of these Retreats or Workshops.

2020-2021 VIRTUAL WORKSHOP & RETREAT SCHEDULE

MIXED MEDIA ENCAUSTIC COLLAGE
Live Zoom Workshop

October 26-27, 2020
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION



EXPLORING LANDSCAPE IN ENCAUSTIC & THE MARK

A Live Virtual Retreat
December 6-11, 2020
WORKSHOP WEB SITE
WORKSHOP REGISTRATION



2021 IN-PERSON WORKSHOP & RETREAT SCHEDULE


MIXED MEDIA ENCAUSTIC
March 24-26
Aya Fiber Studio, Stuart, Florida
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


ENCAUSTIC COLLAGE
April 16-17
Hunterdon Art Museum, Clinton, New Jersey
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


BEYOND THE BASICS ENCAUSTIC
June 18-22
Peters Valley School of Craft
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


EXPLORING LANDSCAPE THROUGH ENCAUSTIC, MARK-MAKING & THE HANDMADE BOOK
Use discount code: Glessner2021 Hurry, it expires 2/8!
July 11-15
Wild Rice Retreat, Bayfield, Wisconsin
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION

EXPLORING LANDSCAPE IN ENCAUSTIC & THE MARK: A VERMONT ARTIST RETREAT W/DIETLIND VANDER SCHAAF
July 26-30
Lareau Inn & Farm, Waitsfield, Vermont
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


EXPLORING LANDSCAPE THROUGH PHOTOGRAPHY, THE FIGURE & ENCAUSTIC: A VERMONT ARTIST RETREAT W/LEAH MACDONALD
August 9-13
Lareau Inn & Farm, Waitsfield, Vermont
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


MIXED MEDIA ENCAUSTIC: FIBER & STRUCTURE
August 27-29
Schweinfurth Art Center, Auburn, New York
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


EXPLORING LANDSCAPE THROUGH MARKMAKING, JOURNALING & THE BOOK: A TUSCAN ARTIST RETREAT

October 3-7
In Collaboration with Strada Toscana, Tuscany, Italy
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


MIXED MEDIA ENCAUSTIC: TEXTURE & LAYERS
October 28-30
R&F Paints, Kingston, New York
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


NOLA ARTIST RETREAT: A HISTORIC CEMETERY EXPLORATION THROUGH MIXED MEDIA ENCAUSTIC
November 8-12
New Orleans, Louisianna
WORKSHOP WEB SITE & REGISTRATION


NEW Virtual Workshop: Mixed Media Encaustic Collage

Utilizing the natural luminosity, textural and layering possibilities of encaustic, participants will combine and collage photographic images and marks to explore, communicate, or entertain through personal narrative.

If oil paint is the prose of painting, then encaustic is its poetry. -Chester Arnold


Mixed Media Encaustic Collage
A Live Virtual Zoom Workshop
Registrants will receive a Zoom link to join the workshop & will have access to the recorded sessions for a limited time following the workshop.


Limited to 12 participants!
Level: Beginner to Intermediate


When
October  26-27, 2020
12am-5pm EST with a one hour break each day

Price
$325

3 Ways to Register
1. *PREFERRED* Venmo: Send to @Lorraine-Glessner
2. Paypal: Send to lorraineglessnerstudio@gmail.com
3. Check: Email lorraineglessnerstudio@gmail.com for mailing address (check must be received at least 5 days before workshop start date)

Who
For Lorraine’s bio, work, exhibitions, teaching and anything else you might want to know, please visit her web site.

Workshop Description
Utilizing the natural luminosity, textural and layering possibilities of encaustic, participants will combine and collage photographic images and marks to explore, communicate, or entertain through personal narrative. This workshop covers basic encaustic techniques and collage as well as mark-making using horse hair, graphite paper and image transfer. A slide talk discussing basic principals of composition, working within the grid and examples of contemporary artist’s work in collage is offered for inspiration. Participants will also have an optional opportunity for a one-on-one discussion with Lorraine.

What Else?

  • Color relationships, composition, application, content, proportion, scale as an effective foundation for other painterly information.
  • Learn how to correctly embed the collage in the wax-to eliminate bubbles, blurring and ‘lifting’ of your collage material.
  • Learn how to use encaustic’s strengths (layering, transparency, luminosity) to tell your story.
  • Mark-making exercises geared toward making simple or complex marks to generate a personal language.
  • The option of an Individual Consultation/Critique discussion with Lorraine…Bring a piece of work, a question, a concern, a problem and discuss it with Lorraine.
  • A slide talk with examples of contemporary artists whose work applies the ideas and concepts discussed in the workshop is offered for inspiration.

SCROLL DOWN TO SEE images of student work from encaustic workshops similar in content to this one. Additional blog posts related to other encaustic workshops taught by Lorraine are here, here and here.

SUGGESTED MATERIALS PARTICIPANTS HAVE IN THEIR STUDIO

  • 2-4 wooden painting panels (your preference of 8×8 or 10×10, but no larger or smaller, please) (nothing coated in acrylic or acrylic gesso!!)
  • 3-5 natural hair brushes  for encaustic painting (1 smallish-no bigger than 1.5” brush will be designated your medium brush, so it must be free of color.
  • .5-1lb encaustic medium from any company
  • sketchbook or Drawing paper
  • package of razor blades or scraper
  • Various materials for collage (papers, magazine images, photos, etc.)
  • any small sharp-ended tool for incising/writing/drawing into the wax (sewing or knitting needles are great)
  • basic encaustic colors

    OPTIONAL MATERIALS 

Price $325
3 Ways to Register
1. *PREFERRED* Venmo: Send to @Lorraine-Glessner
2. Paypal: Send to lorraineglessnerstudio@gmail.com
3. Check: Email lorraineglessnerstudio@gmail.com for mailing address (check must be received at least 5 days before workshop start date)

Exploring Landscape in a Live Virtual Encaustic Workshop

With the pandemic keeping us all close to home, its more important than ever to be able to find inspiration literally in your own backyard or close-by. I highlight the live, virtual encaustic workshop I am teaching December 6-11.

I’m grabbing my paints and jumping on the virtual teaching bandwagon along with so many of my esteemed teaching artist colleagues. I still, and with excited anticipation, very much intend to honor my in-person teaching workshop contracts coming up later in the year. But it is with equally excited anticipation that I highlight the quickly approaching live, virtual encaustic workshop I am teaching December 6-11 in collaboration with Wild Rice Retreats.
Visit The Workshop Web Page for more information and registration.

Exploring Landscape Through Encaustic & The Mark Live, Virtual Workshop

This workshop is one of my favorite in-person teaching experiences. I designed this workshop with the desire to share all of my favorite things-art, hiking and teaching-together in one class and in its 5th year it is still going strong. Everyone explores the outdoors differently and through class discussions and individual work, we all see, experience and learn from one another’s creative vision to experience the essence of the land through all of the senses. With the pandemic keeping us all close to home, its more important than ever to be able to find inspiration literally in your own backyard or close-by. Because we will all be in various states and/or countries for this virtual workshop, the group exploration of the various locales will be that much more exciting and expansive. I am currently working on new journaling, mark-making and painting exercises that are sure to inspire you out of stay-at-home humdrum. I very much look forward to creatively exploring your landscape and this virtual workshop platform with you.

Official Workshop Description

The mark of nature combined with encaustic painting creates timeless works which reference memory, change and time. Utilizing the natural luminosity, textural and layering possibilities of encaustic, participants will experiment with innovative materials, drawing and marks to depict the spirit and essence of the land. 

Daily journaling, meditation, readings and expressive mark-making exercises along with leisurely walks exploring the outdoors provide the inspiration for which to develop ideas for series based work while also developing your personal artistic voice. 

Through listening, mapping, touching, collecting and communing with nature through all of the senses, our body’s connection and its direct relationship to landscape is explored and experienced. 

**Please note that participants should be prepared to spend time outside as well as in the studio. In the event that participants are unable to take part in outdoor activities, participants are welcome to opt out and alternative indoor creative exercises will be provided.

To enhance your Virtual Live Retreat with Wild Rice Retreat, the following will be included in your registration:

  1. Welcome box featuring Wild Rice Retreat favorites and goodies to enhance your experience.
  2. Student Work Show posted on the Wild Rice Retreat Website at completion of online retreat
  3. Optional Individual meetings with instructor.
  4. Visit The Workshop Web Page for more information and registration.

TENTATIVE SCHEDULE (May be subject to slight changes)

SUNDAY, December 6, 5:00pm CST
Welcome and informal meet and greet with instructor and participants.

DAY 1: Monday, December 7
9:30am-11:30am CST
We will begin with brief discussion, settling and experiencing the moment. We will take a virtual hike to begin our first day of experiencing the land, discussion of breath/breathing, listening, drawing, journaling collecting inspiration and materials suitable for brush making as well as a brief brush making demo and encaustic monoprint/work on paper demo. Lorraine will introduce a mixed media exercise inspired by our morning hike in which we will use collected materials from the hike to make marks and generate ideas. The rest of the afternoon is devoted to refining this drawing and the sketches from our hike, free painting time and/or more inspiration gathering.

Optional Afternoon Session (Time TBA)
Optional group time for students to share, discuss their work, ask questions of Lorraine.

DAY 2: Tuesday, December 8
9:30am-11am CST
Discussion of drawings and findings from the day before and possibilities for further study. Journaling, discussion of distancing, isolation, effects of pandemic, separation, silence in relationship to the outdoors and how to express these thoughts in marks and paint. Inspiration slide talk of contemporary artists who effectively use line, mark-making and landscape in their work. Basic encaustic painting, color mixing demonstration. Throughout the day, optional individual meetings with Lorraine., individual time to work on projects/assignments.

Optional Afternoon Session (Time TBA)
Optional group time for students to share, discuss their work, ask questions of Lorraine.

DAY 3: Wednesday, December 9
9:30am-11:00am CST
Lorraine will begin with a discussion of paintings, drawings and findings from the day before and possibilities for further study. After discussion, Lorraine will present a basic collage demonstration and further monoprint/work on paper techniques. We will continue with uninterrupted work time for refining drawings, painting, working toward a series and optional individual discussions with Lorraine throughout the day.

Optional Afternoon Session (Time TBA)
Optional group time for students to share, discuss their work, ask questions of Lorraine.

DAY 4: Thursday, December 10
9:30am-11:30am CST
After morning discussion, we will continue with uninterrupted work time using mark making and encaustic to build a series, experiment with marks, make color studies, ask questions, request informal demos, and continue with individual discussions with Lorraine. Lorraine will also demonstrate the use of horsehair as well as introduce other interesting mark making products suitable for encaustic. Throughout the day, individual time to work on projects/assignments.

Optional Afternoon Session (Time TBA)
Optional group time for students to share, discuss their work, ask questions of Lorraine.

DAY 5: Friday, December 11
9:30am-11:30am CST
Discussion and wrap-up show and tell led by Lorraine.          

Visit The Workshop Web Page for more information and registration.

What Else?

  1. Color relationships, composition, application, content, proportion, scale as an effective foundation for other painterly information.
  2. Learn how to use encaustic’s strengths (layering, transparency, luminosity) to tell your story.
  3. Mark-making exercises geared toward making simple or complex marks to generate a personal language.
  4. The option of an Individual Consultation/Critique discussion with Lorraine. Bring a piece of work, a question, a concern, a problem and discuss it with Lorraine.
  5. Some guided meditation time, planned hiking geared toward your locale will relax and open your mind and spirit to the land, helping to support and nurture your unique creative voice.
  6. A slide talk with examples of contemporary artists whose work applies the ideas and concepts discussed in the workshop is offered for inspiration.
  7. Lots of open studio time to explore and interpret the inspiration gained from the meditations and hikes.

Still on the fence?

Visit this post, this post, and this post to see highlights and student work from past Retreats similar in content to this workshop. Visit this post and this post to see how I combine art, hiking and landscape in my personal work.

The Importance of Contrast

When I think of visual contrast, especially as it pertains to painting, the first thing that comes to mind is light/dark, but contrast is so much more than that.

I am on the tail end of my Second Annual Self Made Artist Residency in Florida and unfortunately, a bout of the flu set me back a week in my plans, so I’m afraid that a lengthy blog post isn’t in the cards. However, a valuable lesson is…

While a good part of this residency is reserved for time to paint, read, write, rest, I also spend a lot of it hiking and taking photographs for painting inspiration…or I photograph just because I see a thing and want to keep it forever 😉 Looking at these photographs as well as paintings I’m attracted to, both my own and other’s work, I’m learning there is one thing that I need to see to both attract and keep my interest: CONTRAST.

When I think of visual contrast, especially as it pertains to painting, the first thing that comes to mind is light/dark, but contrast is so much more than that. In Christopher Alexander’s amazing list, 15 Elements of Style, contrast is succinctly defined as ‘visible opposites’. It became most apparent to me to create a list of what those opposites could be when teaching my Beyond the Basics Encaustic Workshop. During the excavation phase-scraping and carving out a composition after laying down layers of paint and/or during an Encaustic PaintSmash session (see links below)-its like unwrapping a gift, but the gift can shift and morph into one amazing thing after another. Students often ask what to look for, what to highlight…and the answer is always, Contrast. The following list has grown considerably since I first started it in BTB Encaustic and its now shared with all of my workshops. I hope you find it helpful to your process and please feel free to add to it! Below are some paintings chosen randomly from my Pinterest Collection that exemplify the points on the list.

  • Complimentary colors
  • Smooth vs texture
  • Geometric vs organic form
  • Light vs dark-value
  • Solid vs patterned
  • Earthy/grays vs brights/clear
  • Sharp vs Blurry
  • Detail vs Loose

VISIT THIS POST to see images of student work, plus more in depth information about Beyond the Basics Encaustic. Visit this post, this post, this post and this post for more information and images about Encaustic PaintSmash as well as my YouTube Channel for videos.

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